Writing Tips & Advice
Character Development
“Character is plot,” said Henry James.  I think what he meant by that is to have a book, there must be a plot,
and to have a plot, there must be a character.  The character can only be revealed through the plot.  The two
are inseparable.

Creating believable characters that are three-dimensional, ones that come to life on the page and engage the
reader, is key in writing fiction.  After you first introduce a character to the reader, you want the reader to want to
know more.

It's All About Connection

Readers want to connect with the characters, so it’s important to create an image for them early on.  Some
physical characteristics to keep in mind are gender, weight, height, age, body build, hair, eyes, posture, voice
and clothing.  Other traits can be gradually revealed throughout the story by way of dialogue, actions, internal
thoughts, likes and dislikes, their background, values, secrets, mannerisms, speech patterns, thoughts,
dreams, opinions, obsessions, IQ, fears, sense of humor, lifestyle, needs, biases, profession, past actions,
relationships, habits, flaws, desires, attitude, choices, idiosyncrasies, and how they react to situations.

The Main Character Must Evolve

If the main character isn't a different person at the end of the story than in the beginning, their story won't be
very interesting or compelling.  The crises he faces needs to change his life or his outlook on life, but not
because something happened to him.  The change needs to come from a choice he’s made by himself.  And
the change can go in one of two directions. The protagonist may emerge a better person (like in a love story),
or he may plummet into a worse place than where he started (as in a horror story).

Readers frequently remember characters more often than plots, so keep this in mind when you're developing

The Protagonist

The protagonist is the main character in your book, the person with a burning desire for...something. Your
protagonist needs to have a goal, and that goal can be anything--tangible or intangible--and the story should
be the journey he/she takes to achieve that goal.
The Antagonist

Protagonists need roadblocks, and the most significant ones are typically created by the antagonist. An antagonist can be a physical
being who stands in the way of the protagonist, or it can be abstract such as an illness or a social issue. Your antagonist should also
have a goal--one that clashes with the protagonist's.

Internal Monologue

What the character is thinking, called interior or internal monologue, can be equally important in allowing the reader to get to know the
character better.  Readers generally want access to what is going on inside someone’s head, as it brings them closer to the character.  
Internal monologue can be effective before a scene, after a scene or even in the middle if it’s kept short.  While it may be appropriate at
times to actually write what the character is thinking (usually expressed in italics), it is equally as effective to write the action that will
enable the reader to deduce on his own what the character is thinking.

Avoid the Predictable

No one in real life is totally predictable, so totally predictable behaviors should be avoided in writing fiction as well.  A surprising or
irrational behavior can keep the reader interested and wondering what will happen next.  It doesn’t have to make sense.  Just don’t
make the character look stupid, unless of course, your character is stupid.


The writer should know the character’s emotional state for each scene.  Become the character.  Try to show the emotions through
actions.  Instead of telling the reader the character is scared, describe the character’s heartbeat, his stance, his breathing.  Then write
the scene based on the emotion.

What's Her Motive?

Characters are a product of their actions.  When a character snatches a package from a train platform and runs with it, he’s a thief.  But
how the reader judges the thief depends on the character’s motive.  Did he snatch it because he wanted what was in the package?  Or
was it to save the people on the train platform from being harmed by what was in it, making him a hero?  Actions should show the
reader the character’s motive as well as his emotional state of mind.

Show Their Feelings

What a character is feeling at any particular time is important for the reader to know in order to understand the character.  Some feelings
work against the success of the character – inadequacy, envy, failure, feeling trapped, hopelessness, rejection, or abandonment.  
Others work in their favor – being calm, energetic, lucky, excited, thankful, happy, or comfortable.  The 'show, don’t tell' theory applies as
much in character development as anything else.  Show the character jumping up and down while singing
I’m in the Money instead of
telling the reader the character was elated when told of his inheritance.  Tune into yourself – how would you react?

No Two Alike

In order to create reader interest, each character needs to be unique.  If too many characters have similar characteristics, the reader
may become confused.  Giving characters physical “tags” can help to set them apart from each other – a gravelly voice, buck teeth, a
crooked nose, messy hair, beefy fingers, no neck, a lisp, to name just a few.  Tagging a character with something unusual can help to
make the character memorable.

People You Know

You can draw from your own relationships to inspire your fictional characters.  If your character needs to be shy, think of someone you
know who is shy and create a scene from what you’ve observed in real life.  Similarly, if your character is in a situation where he needs
to muster up an incredible amount of courage, think about someone you know who has been in that situation.  Interview them if
needed.  They’ll probably be flattered you asked them how they handled themselves.

If you're having trouble developing characters, try describing a real person in your life. Let what you wrote sit for awhile, and then re-read
it. If it fully fleshes out that person, if you can say, 'Now that describes him/her perfectly,' then you're on to something. If it doesn't, you've
got work to do.

Just remember to add this important disclaimer at the front of your book:

    This is a work of fiction. Names, characters, places, and incidents are either the product of the author's imagination or are used
    fictitiously. Any resemblance to actual persons, living or dead, business establishments, events, or locales is entirely


The strengths and weaknesses of most characters as well as what motivates them are products of their past. This is where backstory
(the narrative providing history of the character’s past) is helpful.  Speaking of backstory, as an author, it is important that you know more
about the protagonist than the reader needs to know in order to develop the character.  As in real life, the protagonist is a complex being,
and only the author will know everything that makes him tick.


Relationships are an excellent way to develop characters – one-on-one or in a group scenario.  Think about all the possible scenes that
could be developed between best friends, an employee and his boss, a criminal and the police, two rivals, siblings, a person and his
pet, a man and his doctor, a wife and her husband’s mistress, or two lovers.  Each scene has the potential to contributing to a
character's development.

Less is Sometimes Better

As with anything, use moderation when writing descriptions.  Over-describing a character can bog down the narrative.  The fewer words
you use that still do the job, the better.  And leaving out a few details might even create an interesting intrigue for the reader.


A tool I find helpful for developing characters is the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicators.  Developed back in the 1950’s when they
still called them personality tests, it was used mostly in business for classifying temperament and behavior patterns in people.  They
identified four continuums of temperament when combined, resulting in sixteen combinations, each describing a person’s behavior.  
The four continuums are:


I created a spreadsheet that lists the various personality traits for each of the sixteen types.  Then I pigeon-holed each of my characters
in one of them.  As I’m developing a character I refer to the typical traits of that personality type and weave them into the dialogue or
scene.  For example, a character in one of my books is an ESTP (extrovert, sensing, thinking, perceiving).  Myers-Briggs describes this
type of person as someone who loves people, gossip, social activities, and entertainment.  My character was all that, but what I didn’t
know was that this type of person is also impulsive and a thought jumper, so I weaved that into the storyline as well.

Photos Can Help

Another tool I find useful when I’m writing is to keep a picture of each main character nearby.  How do you do that, you ask?  The
protagonist in my first two books is of mixed race but can easily pass for white.  So I Googled “mixed-race women” and found a website
with hundreds of photographs.  When I found one I could relate to for my character, I printed it.  It provided inspiration when I was trying
to get into the character’s head.  (I think the photo I chose may have been taken twenty or so years ago and is of a well-known celebrity –
but don’t tell anyone.)  You can also browse through magazines and catalogues for pictures of your characters.  Does your protagonist
like to ski?  Pick up an issue of Freeskier. I bet you’ll find a picture of him in there.

Character Flaws

Remember, no one is perfect.  Everyone, even your most beloved character, has secrets, something they’re not proud of, or a character
flaw. Don’t be afraid to include that.  It won’t take away from their virtues – it will just make them more human. Characters need to be
flawed to be believable so readers will relate to them. If characters are too perfect, they're boring.

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