Writing Tips & Advice
Move the Story Forward
KEEPING IT FRESH

Someone who critiqued an early draft of my first novel advised, “Once you know he’s a cowboy, you never have to mention it again.”  
Providing information you've already conveyed about the character slows down the story and bores the reader.  But, using the cowboy
example, mentioning later in the story that the cowboy accidentally killed an innocent person and that’s why he no longer carries a gun,
is new information that will cause the reader to want to continue reading to see how he’s going to survive without a gun.

ESCALATION

Another way to keep the story moving forward is through escalation.  Creating a beginning (introduction, set-up), middle (tension,
conflict, crisis), and end (resolution) in each scene, chapter and entire manuscript will help to move the story forward. (See
Beginning,
Middle & End.)  Omitting any one of these three components will likely confuse the reader.  If a reader is forced to go back and re-read
something, there’s a problem.

TENSION

It’s hard to imagine a novel without any tension.  No matter what the genre, tension is the conduit the protagonist needs to reach his
goals and will aid in moving the story forward.  Whether in a sentence, paragraph, chapter or the entire book, tension coincides with
unfulfilled desire, which is an essential ingredient for a steadily progressing story.

I love the word, tension.  This definition comes from
www.dictionary.com.

    ten·sion  [ten′-shuhn]
    noun

    - the act of stretching or straining.
    - the state of being stretched or strained.
    - mental or emotional strain; intense, suppressed suspense,anxiety, or excitement.
    - a strained relationship between individuals, groups, nations, etc.

Now show me a good novel that doesn't encompass this word.

Tension can happen all at once, or it can come to a slow boil.  In any case, tension will move the story forward.  It can come in the form
of an internal struggle such as dealing with the disappearance of a loved one.  Or it can come in the form of an external struggle, such
as trying to find the missing loved one.  And as with these examples, the two can often be combined.

DIALOGUE

Effective dialogue will keep the reader interested in the story, but only if it's meaningful.  If it doesn't help to develop the character,
establish the mood, or depict what the character is feeling, omit it.

In most cases, idle chitchat will slow down the story.  One way to get around it is by disclosing the protagonist’s internal thoughts while
the idle chitchat is going on. Example:  Sara’s thoughts drifted back to her son’s dilemma while she shook John’s hand and talked
about the weather.

A SHIFT IN DIRECTION

A shift in direction is another good way to keep the story moving forward.  If your character has spent her whole life running away from
something and all of a sudden faces it head-on, that will keep the reader interested in what happens next.

REVEALING THE PLOT AND PLOT TWISTS

Revealing the plot abruptly is another tool to spark a reader’s interest and urge him to read further.  However, that’s not to say revealing
the plot bit by bit can’t be equally as effective – as in, 'the plot thickens.'  Plot twists can also be intriguing.  Just when the reader thinks
he knows what’s going to happen next, try throwing in something totally unexpected to keep his interest.

MOTIVATION AND GOALS

In order to be meaningful and keep the reader’s interest, a character’s motivation will drive actions geared toward meeting a specific
goal, and that will move the story forward.  

FIRSTS

You can catch a reader’s attention with firsts – the first time the protagonist meets the antagonist; the first time they argue; the first time
she feels threatened; etc.  Make sure the reader feels what the protagonist is feeling when these firsts occur to keep the story moving.

CONFLICT & CRISIS

Readers love conflict, whether it’s internal (“How will I ever live with this guilt?”) or external (“I've been shot!  Call 911!”).  Without conflict,
there is no story.  Conflict can be introduced by forcing the protagonist to make difficult choices that cause a dilemma and further
conflict.  Having the protagonist do something unpredictable can also be effective.  Or just as the protagonist is about to reach a goal, a
roadblock can be thrown in that closes his escape route.

Keeping the readers guessing will keep their interest.  Conflict and crisis cause tension, and tension is a key component in holding a
reader’s interest and keeping the pages turning.  The resolution of one conflict can also potentially unearth another conflict to drive the
story forward.

How the protagonist overcomes crisis is the storyline, and it’s the crisis in the story that causes the protagonist to change.  How well
the narrator integrates conflict and change will affect how the story moves forward.

STUCK IN NEUTRAL

Description is great, but not at the cost of bogging down the flow of the narrative.  If the story contains too much pleasantry or mundane
information, it will bore the reader.  If it doesn't move the story along, if it doesn't add to the story’s momentum, it should be avoided.
For example, it’s not necessary to tell the reader what the bank robber had for breakfast unless the short-order cook overheard him
planning the heist and decided to poison his food to deter the robbery.

If your story seems to be stuck in neutral, ask yourself how things could get worse for the protagonist.  Then raise the stakes and go
there.

PEOPLE CHANGE

A change in your character’s thought process, ideals, beliefs, physicality or lifestyle is required to move the story forward.  If the
character doesn’t experience some form of self-discovery, then what’s the purpose of the story?

BACKSTORY

Backstory is narrative that provides history of the character’s past--what's shaped him into the person he is.  Unfortunately, authors may
like it better than readers.  Achieving the right balance is important--too much and it bores the reader, and too little and the reader may
not understand your character’s motives.

Backstory pulls the reader out of the present, so include it only when the reader needs to know something.  It’s not recommended to
start the story with backstory, nor is it recommended to include it in big chunks.

CHAPTER ENDINGS

Well written chapter endings help to keep the reader turning pages.  Some level of a cliffhanger is a must for most chapter endings,
with the outcome of the situation serving as the beginning of the next chapter.
Moving the story forward is arguably the most important and difficult aspect of good writing.  If someone tells
you, “I couldn’t put the book down” or "It was a real page turner," the author has been successful at moving the
story forward in each chapter, paragraph and sentence.  Stories that effectively move forward keep the reader
engrossed in the story and wanting to know what happens next.  There are several ways to accomplish this.

THE ORDER OF THINGS

One thing that keeps the story moving forward is to write in sequential order of the way things happen.  If you
mix up the order, you may lose or confuse the reader.

Consider the following sentence:

    Mary worried about what she was going to say to her brother as she sat in the back of the restaurant
    where he was a waiter.  She took in a deep breath when she saw him exit the swinging door leading to
    the kitchen.

The following revision corrects the order of things.

    Mary entered the restaurant where her brother was a waiter and took a seat near the back.  She worried
    about what she was going to say to him.  When he exited the swinging door that led to the kitchen, she
    took in a deep breath.

PACING

Most novels will be paced by creating a mix of action and slower scenes where the characters gather their
thoughts.  But even action-packed thrillers need pacing, if for no other reason to give the reader a moment to
breathe.

You can slow down the pace with longer dialogue, interior dialogue, backstory and more specific descriptions.  
Pace can be sped up with shorter words, shorter sentences, alliteration and fast dialogue.  Mixing it up will add
interest for the readers.

One mistake new writers often make is to spend too much time leading up to a specific piece of action.  If you
delay the action too much by describing the suspense, the reader will be disappointed.  The longer it takes to
get to the action, the more text readers will be tempted to skip over.


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